It set the standard minimum wage to 14, or even 16 in nonagricultural jobs, the CRS said. Banerjie, A. Furthermore, such exceptions are likely to reduce the accountability of enforcement officials, employers and families. The Cabinet has made these exceptions within the blanket prohibition of child labour, considering the large number of children in India who help their parents in various activities, such as farming and handicrafts. cabinet has brought an ordinance namely ” U.P. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) is an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Critics of child labour often point out that children are used instead of adults as they are cheaper and easier to exploit and that child labour is often at the expense of adult employment, thus not contributing to poverty alleviation of the families concerned towards generating long-term sustainable and better paying jobs for adults. The PROs of child labor include: Lesser monies are of greater value to children - where an adult might demand $25/hour to do something, children would fight one another for minimum wage (or below). Therefore, the implicit assumption that children are given a choice to work or not work in family enterprises may not be correct. We hope that the government does not lose sight of the larger social, cultural and economic context within which child labour has to be addressed and that these amendments are seen as part of a broad-based and holistic national strategy to tackle child labour across all its dimensions. Although Congress was just trying to protect young workers, both the people and the Supreme Court believed they were taking it a little too, Child labor increased in the 1880’s and started rapidly growing in the 1930’s. There are currently 13 states which do not have a minimum age at which a child can shift into adult court, allowing for the prosecution of eight-year-olds into the adult corrections system. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that it is important to exclusively breastfeed a child for 6 months after birth to reduce infant mortality. THANK YOU. As per a survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in 2004-05, the number was estimated at a little over nine million and a subsequent NSSO survey of 2009-10 put this number at 4.9 million. To assess the likely implications of the proposed amendments, we must begin with an understanding of the incidence of child labour, trends, distribution of child labour across hazardous and non-hazardous activities and success with respect to detecting and addressing violations. Notwithstanding the long-standing ban on children under 14 years of age working in hazardous occupations, a substantial number of children continue to work in such industries. (Rupa Chanda is a Professor of Economics and Sudeshna Ghosh is a Research Associate at the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.). In the absence of adequate regulatory and institutional capacity to ensure child welfare, child workers in informal enterprises and family settings could be left unprotected and subject to exploitation, persecution and abuse. September. The Child Labor Amendment would allow Congress to limit, regulate, and prohibit kids from working under the age of 18. Well, I have listed some positive sides of child labor below to explain you that why child labor might be a good thing and should not be banned completely. Farm Labor: Farm Loans and Subsidies: Farm Policy: Federal Budget and National Debt: Federal Judiciary: Federal Reserve System: Federal/State Government Relations: Food Prices and Supply: Food Safety: Foreign Aid: Gambling and Lotteries: Gay, Lesbian and Transgender Issues: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Individuals: Genetics and Cloning 8. A specific job field in…, They were forced into dangerous work and worked for excessive lengths at a time. The proposed amendments to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation), Act, 1986 (CLPRA) ban employment of children below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes, while allowing work in non-hazardous family businesses, entertainment and sports activities (except circus) after school hours or during vacations, without compromising the safety and education of the working … Accessed June 13, 2013. http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/Children_in_India_2012-rev.pdf. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights. The proposed amendments to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation), Act, 1986 (CLPRA) ban employment of children below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes, while allowing work in non-hazardous family businesses, entertainment and sports activities (except circus) after school hours or during vacations, without compromising the safety and education of the working children. Further, there may be adverse unforeseen consequences on the socio-economic front. The Pros And Cons Of Cruel And Unusual Punishment. They start from a very young age which can strip them from their childhood. Child Labor Amendment. The case Miller v. One cannot presume that such activities cannot be harmful to the child as much depends on the terms and conditions of work and how these are regulated and enforced. Law can be the instrument of change in combating Child Labour … Though they did not receive sufficient…, An educator who saw children getting taken out of school to go work once said, “Man is the only animal that lives on its young.” Child labor has been an ongoing debate in American culture. Child Labour is cheap. They start from a very young age which can strip them from their childhood. The introduction of stiffer penalties and the specific reference to adolescents are also a step in the right direction. Pros of the Bil. The number has declined even further as per the 2011 Census to 4.4 million, albeit with variations across different States in the country 1 . Further, if one looks at the reported data on the number of inspections, prosecutions and convictions, as presented below in Table 1, it is evident that a large number of cases go undetected or unpunished. How justified is such a position which basically reiterates the age old belief that child labour is due to poverty? The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) is an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The amendment, which officially abolished slavery in the United States in 1865, includes a loophole regarding involuntary servitude. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Bill 2012: Pros and Cons 6. Unicef India. Government of India. In 1856 the Hindu Widow’s Marriage Act was given some other legislation regarding women in matters of marriage, adoption and inheritance are: 1. Freedman states that the amendment was killed by people who believed it would increase federal power (94). Solitary confinement pros and cons have been widely debated, from the effects on mental health to the necessity of isolating high-profile or dangerous inmates to reduce violence and injury. Thus, much will depend on what other reforms and measures the government takes up to address child labour, how speedily this is done and on the government’s overall approach towards this issue beyond the legislative framework. What prevents “family enterprises” from employing children in activities such as bidi rolling, carpet weaving and gem polishing, which are clearly hazardous and banned occupations? Two types of change and organizations have invested in blue is due to the surfac it is leading the way personal characteristics that are highly resistant to new ways as architect and principal enforcer of I … The progressive era was filled with many pros and many cons which consist of child labour, workplace safety and big business which happened to rule over many small business’. However, we need to be careful in arriving at such conclusions and in inferring that the proposed amendments will help reduce the incidence of child labour in the country. According to a 2007 Ministry of Labour press release, 2,229 violations of the notification banning employment of children under 14 as domestic help and in the hospitality sector were detected. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that it is important to exclusively breastfeed a child for 6 months after birth to reduce infant mortality. Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII. The 17th Amendment was proposed on May 13th, 1912, with Connecticut being the last state needed to complete the ratification process for Constitutional Amendments on April 8th, 1913. Should Child Participation in Reality TV shows be Banned? Any increase in the already high drop out rates of the most marginalized sections, among them Dalit girls, is likely to further negatively impact education, which is critical for poverty eradication. INDUS Child Labour Project. Geneva: International Labour Office. A new definition of adolescent (ages 14 to 18) has also been introduced in the Bill, and employment of adolescents has been prohibited in hazardous occupations and processes. In the service sector, in segments such as hospitality, entertainment, family-owned shops and dhabas, child labour may similarly involve long working hours under duress, lifting of heavy loads and enduring verbal and physical abuse and other exploitative practices. As the government statement put it, "…striking a balance between the need for education for a child and the reality of the socio-economic condition and social fabric in the country, the Cabinet has approved that a child can help his family or family enterprise, which is other than any hazardous occupation or process, after his school hours or during vacation." American shoppers may not know it, but many of the name-brand products they purchase - from clothing to carpets to sports equipment - were made under appalling circumstances. Accessed June 13, 2015. http://unicef.in/Story/1139/Assessing-Child-Domestic-Labour-in-India. The bill will have a positive impact on child’s health and well-being and decrease … The Hindu Centre For Politics and Public Policy, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, http://unicef.in/Story/1139/Assessing-Child-Domestic-Labour-in-India, http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/Children_in_India_2012-rev.pdf, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@asia/@ro-bangkok/@sro-new_delhi/documents/projectdocumentation/wcms_125442.pdf, Ensuring Zero Tolerance for all Forms of Forced Labour, Policy Report No. [https://www.thehinducentre.com/the-arena/current-issues/article32043893.ece]. Child labour often involved children working in hazardous and dangerous conditions. "Magnitude of Child Labour in India: An Analysis of Official Sources of Data (Draft)." Table 1: Numbers of inspections, prosecutions and convictions under CLPRA, 2007-11, Source : Based on Government of India sources. Initiatives such as the NCLP, which is deemed to have been successful in providing non-formal education and pre-vocational skills besides raising public awareness and helping set up institutions to tackle this problem, must be strengthened and continued with adequate long term funding. Anonymous March 3, 2017 at 10:48 AM. Reply. Do they really improve upon the existing legislation and if so, to what extent and in which manner and if not, what more is needed? Estimates show that over 50% of the workers in some British factories in the early 1800s were under the age of 14. Prohibited activities could occur under the guise of the permitted exceptions. Although we do not have the latest data on the number of children occupied in hazardous industries based on the Census 2011 data, some estimates suggest that a sizeable number continue to work in banned occupations and processes. Its official date of adoption was on the seventeenth of September in 1897. Hindu law of legacy amendment Act 1929. ^ Government of India. Can Intermarriage Lead To An Increase In The Number Of Jews In America? As per UNICEF, there are three forms of child labour:   i. Child labor was a common practice throughout much of the Industrial Revolution. —. Arguments can be made in favour or against. Thus, the proposed changes in the Child Labour Act permitting certain occupations, albeit outside school hours, to employ children have many potential loopholes, which could increase the vulnerability of child workers. Browning’s difference in tone coupled with her use of dark and light imagery paint a vivid image condemning child labor as an inhumane and exploitative source of labor that destroys childhood innocence…, The use of child labor has been used for a long time and is most seen in developing countries. Help? Of course, before trying to end a problem is important to know why children are working rather than engaging in activities that every child should such as going to school. 2012. The conversion rate from the number of inspections to the number of prosecutions was five per cent or less, and less than one per cent in the case of convictions throughout the 2007-11 period. The U.P. Two types of change and organizations have invested in blue is due to the surfac it is leading the way personal characteristics that are highly resistant to new ways as architect and principal enforcer of I … Hence, child labour can, in fact, perpetuate the problem of poverty for such households and denying children the opportunity to get educated can have a long-term adverse effect on human capital and income. Most kids dropped out after primary school to work as “chippers” in turpentine camps (Amidon). By making some forms of child labour permissible, the new amendments are likely to incentivise pulling these marginalised children out of education, thrust into work and subjected thereafter to a life of discrimination, exclusion and poverty in the long run. Policy Report No. Therefore, it is not realistic to expect the recent amendments to legislation to deliver significant gains in the eradication of child labour, given the magnitude of the problem and its complexities, and the deficiencies in legal enforcement and regulatory capacity. Udhagamandalam,12/06/2015: When the World is observing Anti child labour day a boy who is suppose to go to school is carrying fire wood to support his faimly in Udhagamandalam.Photo: M.Sathyamoorthy -   -  The Hindu. Similarly, one can also question the poverty argument that has been given by the government to allow work in some activities. According to Census 2001, out of 238.8 million children between the ages of five and 14, constituting about a quarter of India’s population, some 12.6 million (or five per cent of this age group) were working. Accessed July 13, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@asia/@ro-bangkok/@sro-new_delhi/documents/projectdocumentation/wcms_125442.pdf. But on balance, we believe that the changes are unlikely to have much impact on the incidence of child labour in India unless they are accompanied by a host of other measures to combat this problem. Help? Observed numbers may not reveal the full picture and, more importantly, the mere existence of legislation does not guarantee follow through and enforcement. The Equal Pay Amendment Often referred to separately, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 was an amendment to the FLSA that banned gender-based wage differences. Hence, there are both pros and cons and the implications of the amended legislation are ambiguous. Right now im sat in my lesson in the computer room, typing up my essay of "pros and cons of child labour" i've got a whole list of Pros But the only cons i can think of are the fact that it is morally wrong and unjustifing. Often, children work long hours under severe hardship on the fields. The main reason for our not so positive stance is based on the fact that child labour is a complex and multifaceted problem which is hard to capture in numbers and difficult to tackle through legislation alone, especially given the institutional and regulatory lacunae in our system. 1440 Words 6 Pages. Child labor has been a problem in America since the Industrial Revolution. Rajendran, S. 2015. The progress that has been made in getting children out of work and into schools under initiatives such as the National Child Labour Project (NCLP), which has been in place since 1988 and under which 7,328 special schools 2 have been opened for the children withdrawn from work, might be overturned. The Pros And Cons Of Child Marriage. For instance, merely providing access to education for children cannot be enough. This helps me a ton for my project for pros and cons of child labor!! For everyone saying that this is unethical and terrible of a person to say that something such as child labor has benefits, you don't know what you are talking about. Should Abortion Be Legalized Pros and Cons Posted on April 9, 2020 April 9, 2020 by Daniel PHI 103: Informal Logic October, 24 Abortion has been one of the most hotly debated issues in American society over the past generation, and today it remains a controversial issue due to its many complicated arguments. —. Had it ever been enacted, the proposed Twentieth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution would have granted Congress the power to regulate child labor. But they are clearly not enough and there isn’t a one-to-one link between legislation and the incidence of child labour as there are many intermediating factors in this relationship. But the pros only outweigh the cons if the minimum wage isn’t too high. Replies. Provisions related to child and female labour has been kept alive. 3. Eliminating harsh conditions and very young child labor was one of the key focuses of the FLSA. The children that worked in these factories were treated as animals. Essay On Oppression Of Women In The Military, Argumentative Essay On Legalization Of Marijuana, Pros And Cons Of The Child Labor Amendment. In the more time preparing mil and pros child labor cons learning office group. Wages cannot be so high that they reduce a company's ability to keep labor costs low during a recession . Its official date of adoption was on the seventeenth of September in 1897. Retrogressive Changes to Child Labour Act Should Be Withdrawn: Nina P. Nayak, The Hindu Centre for Politics and Public Policy, May 27. Within the family - where children are engaged in household tasks without payment. PROPOSED CHILD LABOUR (PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION) AMEDMENT BILL, 2012 Amidst the entire ruckus after the change in the government, we have seen many bills and amendment approved by the cabinet; one of them is the child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) act, 2012. n.d. "Assessing Child Domestic Labour in India." 6 Pros And Cons of the Equal Rights Amendment In this modern age, gender inequality seems like an issue that belongs only in the past. 18: Modern Day Slavery: A Study of Tribals and Dalits as Bonded Labour in Brick Kilns, https://www.thehinducentre.com/publications/policy-report/article31527561.ece/BINARY/Policy%20Report%20No_18.pdf, Retrogressive Changes to Child Labour Act Should Be Withdrawn: Nina P. Nayak. Employment of children in roadside eateries and motels in excessive heat and cold, stone mining and stone quarries, occupations which have been added to the list of banned occupations in recent years, also continues. However, the expanded ban on child labour and the exceptions permitted for family enterprises and within certain time frames could also result in more illicit and unregulated forms of child labour and could be misused. First proposed in 1922, the amendment was approved by both houses on 2 June 1924. Negatives. PROPOSED CHILD LABOUR (PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION) AMEDMENT BILL, 2012 Amidst the entire ruckus after the change in the government, we have seen many bills and amendment approved by the cabinet; one of them is the child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) act, 2012. Our main concern regarding the proposed amendments, however, stems from the possible misuse of the exceptions that have been made for work in “family enterprises” outside of school hours. It might be argued that the government’s efforts in addressing the problem and the existence of legislation such as the CLPRA have contributed to the decline in the number of child workers. school to go work once said, “Man is the only animal that lives on its young.” Child labor has been an ongoing debate in American culture. Legislation must also be supported by other measures, such as providing suitable alternatives for children, particularly with regard to inclusive educational facilities, and steps to sensitise employers, parents and society to ensure accountability in case there are violations. To conclude, any attempt to eradicate to child labour must recognise the complexity of the issue and must address the range of direct and indirect factors that contribute to this social evil. In sum, it is difficult to assess the implications of the recent changes in the Child Labour Act without further clarity on the government’s position on other programmes and initiatives that have a bearing on the problem of child labour, and without information on what steps the government may be taking to improve enforcement of existing legislation. Given such possible outcomes, the argument that these permitted activities provide scope for skill development and impart an entrepreneurial spirit is not convincing. 1446 Words 6 Pages. Despite wide popular support, the amendment was only ratified by 28 of the required 36 states before the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 made it a moot issue by placing child laborunder control of the Department of Labor. On balance, however, our contention is that these proposed amendments may do very little to address the problem, unless accompanied by a range of other measures and conducive conditions to eradicate child labour and unless enforcement of existing legislation is improved. ^ Rao, Jyoti . Some fallacies behind child work in family occupations. They may also result in certain regressive and unintended effects such as on a child’s right to education. They are exposed to the hazards of working with chemicals and machinery. 2008. Many of these occupations are outside the purview of the law. In 1900, child labor was at an all time high in the, The Fall Of Downfall In William Shakespeare's Macbeth. There is scope for employers to take advantage of “family enterprises” to employ child workers. ii. Congress passed an amendment banning child labor, but the bill was not approved by the states British Child Labor Limit Law, 1802 and 1819 Children's Rights by Courtney Farrell If a family has sick family members, the child can work and bring in income. Further, the existing provision of punishment for parents or guardians of the child being the same as that for the employer are to be altered with no punishment being applicable in case of a first offence. 2016. Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII. Real reasons please. Accessed May 26, 2015. http://censusindia.gov.in/. The debate about the amendment touched … Rapid urbanisation and growth of the informal economy has fuelled a rise in the employment of child labour in many informal trade and services, and, to some extent, manufacturing. But as highlighted earlier, both legitimising some types of child labour and a blanket ban on all child labour have their problems, as in either case there is scope of misuse and violation. 4. Younger minds are like sponges - children can learn in a few hours what it takes a young adult days and an older adult weeks to learn. In December 1829 Sati was declared illegal and abolished. 1. Figure 1 shows the fluctuating trends in child labour over the 1971-2011 period and the sharp decline in the last decade. Also, in 1916 and 1918, the Supreme Court declared Congress’s laws on child labor unconstitutional because it “denied children the freedom to contract work” (Freedman 94). More importantly, these numbers do not reveal how many of these children were working in hazardous and banned segments and the degree of vulnerability. In short, the recent proposals to amend the CLPRA can be critiqued on various grounds. Pros And Cons Of Child Labour. 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